Monday, November 18, 2019

Are or should rights be based on nationality The Module is [ Essay

Are or should rights be based on nationality The Module is [ Citizenship in Theory and Practice] politics - Essay Example It is for this reason that arbiters of rights are always under scrutiny and lot of discussion goes on regarding the role and task of rights arbitrator for informing people regarding their rights. The question of rights has always challenged political philosopher and thinkers. The question has also tested the wits of moral thinkers as it is one of the fundamental issues of morality. Since, philosophy started in ancient Greece therefore early thought had Greek city state or polis in mind and for this reason the application of rights focused on the relationship of individual and polis. As such, the idea of rights is mainly based on the responsibilities of the individual citizen to the wider polis (Delanty, 2000). Individual submitted before the authority of polis for the protection of his life and limb. The concept of rights in the ancient world was related with area and territory. The concept of citizenship was firmly based on birth. Therefore, the development and application of rights has traditionally been firmly linked with a concept of territorial integrity (Lister & Pia, 2008). Modern concept of Western nationalism has firmly established the link between rights and territorial integrity, which was originally formed in ancient Greece and practiced in Roman Empire. ... Nationality and the nation state have always been linked; as a result, a similar link has been formed between the concept of rights and the foundation of nationality (Held, 1995). This strong link of rights and nationality continued on for a long period of time but development in science and technology along with better communication has brought significant changes in the outlook and approach of thinkers. Many factors are responsible for the changed attitude but three primary processes account for this attempt to revise the idea of rights. Firstly, migration has brought phenomenal changes in the concept of nationality. Secondly, the formation of regional political structures has meant that concepts of regional citizenship have taken firm ground. Numerous examples of regional bodies can be found; however, possibly the most significant at the present time is the European Union (Faist, 2007). Finally with advent of Information Technology the concept of globalisation has become a byword. The commencement of globalisation and the necessary political responses that have been taken have led many to question whether basing rights on nationality is applicable in an unified and mutually dependent world (Held, 1995). This concept of globalisation has questioned the link of rights and territory. Above all, as globalisation has increasingly served to de-link individuals and societies from the national setting, the idea that rights can be founded on the basis of national territory has been greatly criticised (Held, 1995). Considering the above assessment, the purpose of this work is to assess and examine whether, or should the application of rights be based on

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Revenue Recognition and Corporate Governance

Revenue Recognition and Corporate Governance Revenue recognition is one of the most important accounting concepts to organisations across the globe. Basically, there are two main ways in which an organisation can account for revenue as part of their financial accounts. A company can either use cash based accounting or accruals based accounting. Cash based accounting requires the company to recognise the revenue and to put the figure into their accounts at the point when the cash is received, regardless of how or when the money has been earned. On the other hand, with accruals based accounting the figures will feature in the accounts when the revenues are realised, or when the amount is earned, not necessarily when the cash actually enters the company[1]. Countries across the world deal with the issue of revenue recognition very differently and, as such, it is particularly difficult to compare international businesses. The way in which revenue is recognised will have an impact on the perceived financial health of an organisation and different approaches can make it extremely difficult for analysts and investors to make a fair comparison. In October 2002, the International Accounting Systems Board (â€Å"IASB†) and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (â€Å"FASB†) began a joint project to deal with these differences. The original overall aim of the revenue recognition project was to establish a single coherent way of revenue recognition that can be used, globally. Fundamentally, this required the convergence of US GAAP and international standards. One of the main problems facing FASB and IASB is that the US does not have a general accounting standard relating to revenue recognition. Instead, different sectors and industries have developed their own ways of dealing with revenue recognition in line with their individual requirements[2]. As a result, there is no consistency. Moreover, revenue recognition in the US is seen as particularly complex and is based largely on the discretion of the individual finance teams. Originally, the project suggested that a fair value asset based approach should be followed. However, it is currently thought that it will not be possible to establish one universal approach. The basic concept of the fair value asset and liability approach is that when a company enters into a contract, it creates rights (assets) and obligations (liabilities). The difference between these assets and liabilities at any point in the contract is the revenue generated by this contract and should be the figures used at the point in which the accounts are drawn up. This started as a fair value approach to the difference in assets and liabilities, but has now shifted more towards the customer consideration approach to valuing the difference between assets and liabilities[3]. The FASB and IASB have since recognised that enforcing one standard on a global level will be impossible and have, since 2006, decided to take a more bottom-up approach by conducting an international study of how the above model would work and the way in which it would interact with the cultural differences across the globe[4]. It is this cultural difference and historical freedom that presents the greatest challenge to the success of the project. Without a detailed understanding of how the proposed models will work, practically, with reference to the various different families of transactions, it will be impossible for the project to reach any definitive conclusion. For this reason, gaining a greater understanding has now become the first and most important priority of the FASB and the IASB when conducting their study relating to revenue recognition. Corporate governance is absolutely vital in the administration and control of companies. Essentially, corporate governance refers to the principles, policies, customs, laws and any other factors that deal with the way in which a company is managed. It is key in the way that the relationship with the company directors and the stakeholders in the company interacts. As a general rule, strong corporate governance results in a good level of confidence in the company itself and the wider industry[5]. The aims of corporate governance are multiple but are mainly in relation to accountability of the key individuals within the organisation and, in particular, the way in which the company deals with the principal – agent problem[6]. It is also about establishing economic efficiency and ensuring the best and most appropriate use of available resources. As the way in which companies are run varies so dramatically from country to country, it is unsurprising that the way corporate governance is managed is equally diverse. In 2002, the United States took the approach of regulating the way in which corporate governance should work with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. This Act was drawn up as a rule based approach to corporate governance, following several accounting scandals which hit the headlines in the US, the most notable being the collapse of ENRON. As part of the legislation, eleven heads of rules were created and the Securities and Exchange Commission was required to make compliance a condition of admission to the exchange. The rules have been criticised as being highly prescriptive and not allowing for flexibility based on organisational differences[7]. Contrast this with the principles based approach taken in the UK and the US. Although both countries follow the Anglo-American approach, which is considered liberal and as giving priority to shareholders, the way they go about achieving this aim is substantially different. The UK takes a principle based approach with a ‘comply or explain’ policy[8]. This means that a list of principles and best practices has been developed in relation to corporate governance whereby public listed companies must either comply with this best practice or explain why it is not thought necessary in their particular circumstances. In the US, there are statutory rules with which all accompanies must comply. The UK government felt that it was not possible to create one set of rules that would capture the needs and issues of every type of company; for this reason, it has continued to favour this principle based approach. Divergences in the way that corporate governance is dealt with across the globe and even across sectors and industries is a natural part of the way business is conducted. All companies have their own issues and structures which require different approaches to control and accountability. The level of prescription that the US government has placed on corporate governance has resulted in a one size fits all approach which is simply impractical. Failure to allow a degree of flexibility and adaptability will result in a difficult to manage and ineffective system of corporate governance. Footnotes [1] Sondhi, Ashwinpaul C., Taub, Scott, Revenue Recognition Guide, Cch Inc, 2006 [2] Benston, George J., Bromwich, Michael, Litan, Robert E., Wagenhofer, Alfred ,Worldwide Financial Reporting: The Development and Future of Accounting Standards, Oxford University Press US, 2006 [3] Sondhi, Ashwinpaul C., Taub, Scott, Revenue Recognition Guide, Cch Inc, 2006 [4] Glover, Jonathan C., Ijiri, Yuji, Levine, Carolyn B., Jinghong Liang, Pierre, Separating Facts from Forecasts in Financial Statements, Accounting Horizons, Vol. 19, 2005 [5] Colley, J., Doyle, J., Logan, G., Stettinius, W., What is Corporate Governance ? McGraw-Hill, December 2004 [6] Clarke, Thomas (ed.), Theories of Corporate Governance: The Philosophical Foundations of Corporate Governance, London and New York: Routledge, 2004 [7] Monks, Robert A.G, Minow, Nell, Corporate Governance, Blackwell, 2004 [8] Arcot, Sridhar, Bruno, Valentina,d Faure-Grimaud, Antoine, Corporate Governance in the U.K.: is the comply-or-explain working?, FMG CG Working Paper 001, December 2005

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Dissocative Identity Disorder Essay -- Diseases, Disorders

We all daydreamed, gotten lost inside a movie, has even had an out of body experiences; don’t worry it’s all common, but it is also a mild form of dissociation. Dissociation is a separation within an individual’s actions, memories, thoughts feelings, or has a sense of being unreal. Among the most incomprehensible or mystifying and controversial is the rare dissociative identity disorder. It’s the most severe and chronic manifestation of the dissociative disorders. This colossal dissociation of identity from a conventional cognizance embodies those with dissociative identity disorder, (DID; previously known as multiple personality disorder) in which two more diverse characteristics are said to interchangeably switch the person’s demeanor. Dissociative identity disorder is thought to stem from severe trauma mostly in the person’s early childhood (usually around the age 9), due to extreme cyclical sexual, physical and/or emotional abuse. The dissociative aspect is assumed to be a managing method, because literally each personality has its own mannerisms, voice, age, sex, and even race; by dissociating their selves from a situation or experience that are too painful violent to assimilate with their conscious self. Typically, the original personality denies any awareness of the other identities. Understanding the development of multiple personalities is difficult, even for highly trained experts; making a diagnosis of DID take time. It’s estimated that individuals with dissociative identity disorder has spent seven years in the mental health system prior to diagnosis. This is because of the similarities of symptoms of many psychiatric diagnosis of treatment that they seek. The DSM-IV provides the following criteria to diagnose dis... ...her than the driver, they truly believe that they have no choice. A person in treatment for a dissociative disorder might benefit from antidepressants or anti-anxiety medication, but is still no "cure" for dissociative identity disorder; it has been proven for effective treatment which includes medications, psychotherapy or talk therapy, hypnotherapy, and adjunctive therapies long-term treatment is very successful, only if the patient stays committed. Bibliography www.dissociativeidentitydisorder.net psychology.about.com www.psychologytoday.com www.sidran.org www.webmd.com www.medicinet.com www.fortea.us/english/psiquatria/dissociative.htm: Analytical Overview, Jacqueline Costello. York College of Pennsylvania The American Psychiatric Association. (APA) (1994): Diagnostic and Statistical manual of mental disorders. (4thed). Washington DC: Author Dissocative Identity Disorder Essay -- Diseases, Disorders We all daydreamed, gotten lost inside a movie, has even had an out of body experiences; don’t worry it’s all common, but it is also a mild form of dissociation. Dissociation is a separation within an individual’s actions, memories, thoughts feelings, or has a sense of being unreal. Among the most incomprehensible or mystifying and controversial is the rare dissociative identity disorder. It’s the most severe and chronic manifestation of the dissociative disorders. This colossal dissociation of identity from a conventional cognizance embodies those with dissociative identity disorder, (DID; previously known as multiple personality disorder) in which two more diverse characteristics are said to interchangeably switch the person’s demeanor. Dissociative identity disorder is thought to stem from severe trauma mostly in the person’s early childhood (usually around the age 9), due to extreme cyclical sexual, physical and/or emotional abuse. The dissociative aspect is assumed to be a managing method, because literally each personality has its own mannerisms, voice, age, sex, and even race; by dissociating their selves from a situation or experience that are too painful violent to assimilate with their conscious self. Typically, the original personality denies any awareness of the other identities. Understanding the development of multiple personalities is difficult, even for highly trained experts; making a diagnosis of DID take time. It’s estimated that individuals with dissociative identity disorder has spent seven years in the mental health system prior to diagnosis. This is because of the similarities of symptoms of many psychiatric diagnosis of treatment that they seek. The DSM-IV provides the following criteria to diagnose dis... ...her than the driver, they truly believe that they have no choice. A person in treatment for a dissociative disorder might benefit from antidepressants or anti-anxiety medication, but is still no "cure" for dissociative identity disorder; it has been proven for effective treatment which includes medications, psychotherapy or talk therapy, hypnotherapy, and adjunctive therapies long-term treatment is very successful, only if the patient stays committed. Bibliography www.dissociativeidentitydisorder.net psychology.about.com www.psychologytoday.com www.sidran.org www.webmd.com www.medicinet.com www.fortea.us/english/psiquatria/dissociative.htm: Analytical Overview, Jacqueline Costello. York College of Pennsylvania The American Psychiatric Association. (APA) (1994): Diagnostic and Statistical manual of mental disorders. (4thed). Washington DC: Author

Monday, November 11, 2019

Comparing Public and Private Sector Accounting

INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC SECTOR ACCOUNTING Public Sector Accounting is related to government and different from private sector accounting. Accounting and financial reporting for public sector are based on distinctive concepts, standards, and procedure designed to accommodate their environment. This also based on the needs of their accounting information users. Derbyshire (1987) defined a public sector as a device for regulating human activities so that men and women can live together in reasonable harmony. The public sector is providing basic government services whether federal, state or local/municipal.It encompasses universal and critical services such as a national defense, healthcare, public roads and primary education. The public sector is part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the government. A stakeholder is a party who has an interest in the organization’s activities, project or program. This is including wh ose affects, or can be affected by, the organization’s actions and decisions. More institutional stakeholders are lying under the public sector compared to private sector.For examples the parliament, the Auditor General and the Cabinet. They are mainly from individuals who are directly or indirectly involved in the company’s action such as the shareholders and suppliers. The public sector operates within a framework of public authorization and control. One common feature of all public sectors bodies is Parliament will derived the specific power ultimately. However, the formal and informal networks such as the ministers, local councils, and pressure groups impacted on the way of how the public organizations operate. The public sector also has a plurality of objectives.Political, economic, social, regulatory, technical and performance of services often occur on the basis of perceived need rather than in response to strict market-related demand. For example, in Malaysia, plurality of objectives of the government is clearly observed. The observation is through the setting up of different ministries with a variety of portfolios. In addition, public sector organization has no direct financial interest or benefits to the contributors of resources. Any direct or proportionate share of those organization’s goods and services will not been received by the contributors of resources.For instance, an individual who is a tax payer in Malaysia will not receive direct benefits from the Inland Revenue Board. Instead, they enjoy indirect benefits from the provision of education at all levels, provision of health services, continuous clean water supply and any other benefits. The public sector is varying accounting principles and practices. In general, fund accounting where separate accounts are maintained for each fund so that limitations and restriction placed on use of the resources allocated can be properly monitored and accountability is ensured.The pri vate sector is generally using the entity accounting which a term used to identify the organization. The accounting service is to be provided and whose accounting or other information is to be analyzed, accumulated and reported. Lastly, the public sector is more to political rather than financial control which concerned about delivering social responsibilities to the public at large. Hence, the priority on resources allocation is generally governed by the priority set by the government. The national agenda sets the priority, not by any investment appraisal and profitability criteria.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Skype the Perfect Freemium Model Essay Example

Skype the Perfect Freemium Model Essay Example Skype the Perfect Freemium Model Paper Skype the Perfect Freemium Model Paper The perfect FREEMIUM model 11/24/2010 Petra Sanyova BCi08: 5th semester: e-Marketing The Freemium Model The term freemium is a coined term, derived from words ‘free’ and ‘premium’. This term stands for an expanding business model where companies are making profits from selling premium products to a small percentage of their total users. Although the majority of the users is not paying anything for the product, companies still has possibility to be highly profitable, and they usually are. The business where only 5-10% of customers generate revenue could not run profitably under traditional conditions. The change was caused by numerous innovations in the field of digital production, as well as internet distribution. Due to these technological progresses, companies are able to copy and distribute free products to many customers at very low costs. Skype â€Å"Skype is software that enables the world’s conversations. † Millions of people make video or voice calls, send instant messages and share files through this program. The majority of them do so with no charge at all. The only prerequisite, to be able to use this software, is that both parties who would like to communicate need to have the program installed and running. Skype was established in 2003, with its headquarters being in Luxemburg. Its founders Niklas Zennstrom and Janus Friis are still partial owners together with investor group led by Silver Lake (that also owns eBay), the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board and Andreessen Horowitz. Since the establishment – the first version of the program, Skype never stopped to grow and is still introducing new updates, features etc. When it comes to its community, the Skype changed from a small unknown program into a program used daily by millions of people with many features. Lately everybody is impressed with the number of Facebook users; nevertheless in the end of year 2009, Skype had 160 million more registered users than Facebook, which in numbers is 560 million. According to the quarterly updates the company issues, it added 39 million registered users in the last quarter of 2009 only. This stands for 6% growth rate in the maturity phase of the product! 36. billion minutes of Skype-to-Skype calls were recorded in these last three months of 2009, adding to get 250 billion minutes of these calls recorded overall. Still in 2009 only, this number accounted for 12% of the world’s international calls. About 23 million users are logged into Skype at its peak times. (I am logged in just as a write this paper. ) Skype is international software, offered in 29 languages and used almost in every single country of the world. Skype offers a variety of features to all its users, with the main feature being Skype-to-Skype calls free of charge. To improve the customers’ experience while calling, it introduced many additional features as: conference calling, video calling and group video calling. Moreover Skype is effectively used for instant messaging and sharing various files; screen sharing included. One of the latest introduced features is called ‘Facebook News Feed and Phonebook’ which enables users to call friends directly from a Facebook News Feed and Phonebook in Skype. Although this all is offered by Skype to its users for free, it does not indicate company’s irrationality. Just because products are free, does not mean companies are not profitable. Google is a great example of this; and however slightly different, Skype is as well. The point is to broaden the classic view of a market from only two parties (buyer and seller) to more parties, from which only few exchange money. The most common model is the three-party system. The third party pays to participate in the system, the first two created by a free exchange between each other. The success of charging nothing for something lies in understanding of the psychological gap between ‘almost zero’ and ‘zero’. As all the other members are needed to create the environment, for others to pay for, it is essential to attract as many people as possible. While the costs are insignificant and free is a word appealing to almost everybody, giving away the product to 90% of customers is reasonable. The rest 10% then consist of the customers who opted for a premium account and they generate revenues. Pareto principle applies This is the case of Skype too. The third party consists of the premium users, who are actually paying for additional features available in premium accounts. This group of users accounts to 6% of its all active users generating over 777 million dollars a year. The additional features, they are then enabled to use are: Skype-to-landlines/mobiles, voicemail, call forwarding, call transfer and text messaging. The user also gets his/her own online number so the landlines/mobiles-to-Skype calls are then also possible. Skype specific success can be accredited not only to the great idea that is making people’s lives easier, but to the way its entire business model is set up: [ 1 ]. SKYPE business model Partners:- Phone manufacturers- Online Platforms| Key activities:-Software development- Integration with new platforms- Marketing| Value proposition:- Free VoIP and video calling- Internet based communication| Relationships:- Appreciative user base- Thanks to free download- Automated with online profiles| Customers:-Not fragmented| | Key resources:- Software- Brand| | Distribution and acquisition channels: Online| | Cost structure:- Very low maintenance cost- Software development| Revenue streams / pricing:- Sale of complimentary items- 7-8% conversion rate from free| And no argument there, that it is set up brilliantly. Conclusion Skype, together with Flickr and LinkedIn, is one of the most successful companies, operating under the freemium model. As was already mentioned, Skype uses three-party model, in which the Pareto principle applies – small percentage of a customers pay to get a premium, covering the cost of the majority of users not charged and still generating the revenues. The reason for this is the almost zero maintenance cost, thanks to technological advancements. For people to purchase the premium accounts is important that the system created is stable and large enough, and so Skype is doing great job in attracting these basic users. By giving the program for free and updating it regularly it does not create only large user base, but an appreciative one. As Skype is a program, which with its features, benefits the ordinary users and possibly save them money – this group is thankful. Being thankful for Skype means being loyal and having overall positive attitudes towards the brand; which is another big asset of Skype. Nowadays it stands for a international brand, which is widely recognized. If company can keep up the conversion ratio, remain popular and hand off the possible threads from new competitors or telecommunication companies; its sustainability of the freemium model can be proved.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Animal rights essays

Animal rights essays Many humans use animals for testing each year. Animal testing is when the animals are put through something or injected to see how they react to what medical research they have been used for. There are three very important reasons why animals should not be used for testing harmful or dangerous materials. One of these is that testing and its use is trivial in the cosmetic industry. The second reason is that animals have rights and animals can feel pleasure and pain just as humans do. The third reason is that testing is cruel and unusual. Another reason is that animal testing and its use is trivial in the cosmetic industry. Testing on animals for the cosmetic industry is not necessary because they have many other ways to find out if it harms the human race. The testing that goes on is harmful to the animals and can cause serious side effects. The cosmetic companies hold down bunnies in vices and spray the cosmetics into their eyes to see if it causes them redness, stinging, or even blindness. They also have baboons strapped down with their heads in vices to do certain tests on them. Animals are also used by pharmaceutical companies to produce drugs and health supplements. They estimate that 17 to 22 million animals are used each year for medical research, and these estimates do not include rats, mice, fish, and farm animals. That means that 90% of all research animals are not included in the statistics. Too many animals are being tested and they do not even need to use the animals for these tests. They ca n use computer software materials and get the same results. One more point is that animals do have rights. The activists of the animal rights movements do not claim that animals are the moral equivalent of humans, just that their feelings deserve some consideration. Animals are just as alive as we are and they follow the course as we do, they find food, they produce offspring, they overcome challenges, theref ...

Monday, November 4, 2019

Statistics for Managers Individual Work wk5 Essay

Statistics for Managers Individual Work wk5 - Essay Example Generally, the list sale price for Gulf View Condominiums seems to be higher than No Gulf View Condominiums. The mean for list price for Gulf View Condominiums is $474010 while for No Gulf View Condominium is $212810. Also, on the same variable Gulf View Condominiums seems to be higher, it has a standard deviation of $197290 while No Gulf View Condominiums is $2395640 Out of the variables listed above, the one that can help a real estate agent understand the Condominium market is the standard deviation. Standard deviation is very critical because it shows how the prices are stable. Therefore, if the standard deviation is high then it means the prices fluctuates very much. When the significance level is increased then the critical area is reduced as a result you are likely to reject the null hypothesis. Hence, one is less likely to accept the null hypothesis when it is false thereby reducing type 1 error but type 1 error will