Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Synthesis of Aspirin Essays Synthesis of Aspirin Essay Synthesis of Aspirin Essay Essay Topic: Synthesis Sypnopsis In this experiment, acetylsalicylic acid was synthesized from the acidification of salicylic acid and acetic anhydride. The objective was to convert a specific amount of salicylic acid into the same amount of aspirin that was high in purity. Furthermore, the other objectives were to enable students to conduct the synthesis of aspirin, reinforce skills or recrystallisation and the technique of melting point determination. The amount of each compound should be the same because there is a 1:1 ratio between them. The purity of the synthesized aspirin was measured by determining its melting point and percent yield. Soluble impurities increase the range over which a compound melts and often decreases its overall melting point temperature1. If the experiment went as expected, a pure sample of aspirin with a high percent yield would have been obtained. The percent yield obtained was 56. 1% and the melting point was 134. 7- 136. 8. Introduction Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a versatile drug that is consumed in huge quantities worldwide. It is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with a wide range of physiological effects. The first discovery of aspirin occurred in England, in 1963, believing that the bark of willow trees with a beneficial effect in alleviating distress due to fevers, aches, and pains2. Salicylic acid was later extracted from the willow bark and it proved to be an active ingredient. Salicylic acid was synthesized from basic starting materials by 1860 which was helpful to the medicinal field but there were some problems2. Salicylic acid turned out to be irritating to the membranes of the throat, mouth, and stomach. The product had a high acidity of the compound but fortunately, successful amendments were done, namely, the replacement of the acidic phenolic hydrogen atom with an acetyl group. In 1893, a effective synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid was created, patented in 1899, commercialized under the trade name of Ã¢â¬ËaspirinÃ¢â¬â¢ by the Bayer Company in Germany3. The name Ã¢â¬ËaspirinÃ¢â¬â¢ was invented by the chemist, Felix Hoffman, who originally synthesized acetylsalicylic acid for Bayer3. At very low doses, aspirin is used to treat and prevent heart attacks and blood clots. At higher doses, it is used as an analgesic to reduce pain and as an antipyretic to reduce fever. At very high doses, it is an effective anti-inflammatory agent used to treat rheumatic fever, gout and rheumatoid arthritis. It is also an anticoagulant, it dissolves corns and calluses, and it provokes loss of uric acid (a toxin) but promotes retention of fluids in the kidneys. It kills bacteria and induces peptic ulcers. When ingested, acetylsalicylic acid remains intact in the acidic stomach, but in the basic medium of the upper intestinal tract, it hydrolyzes forming the salicylate and acetate ions. When ingested, acetylsalicylic acid remains intact in the acidic stomach, but in the basic medium of the upper intestinal tract, it hydrolyzes forming the salicylate and acetate ions. The exact mechanisms of its pharmacological actions are still under study. In many plants, salicylate can induce flowering. However, aspirin may cause side effects for example, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain and heartburn. Theory Aspirin is prepared from salicylic acid and acetic anhydride with the help of an acid catalyst. Concentrated sulphuric acid acts as a catalyst. After preparation, the product is purified. This is especially important for chemicals that are used as food additives and pharmaceuticals. The most common method of purifying solid organic compounds is by recrystallization. When an impure solid compound is dissolved in a solvent, it is then allowed to slowly crystallize out as the solution cools. As the compound crystallizes from the solution, the molecules of the other compounds dissolved in solution are excluded from the growing crystal lattice, giving a pure solid. Crystallization of a solid is different from a precipitation of a solid. In crystallization, there is a slow, selective formation of the crystal framework resulting in a pure compound. In precipitation, there is a rapid formation of a solid from a solution that usually produces an formless solid containing many trapped impurities within the solids crystal framework. For this reason, experimental procedures that produce a solid product by precipitation always include a final recrystallization step to give the pure compound. Figure: The esterification of salicylic acid by acetic anhydride5. The -OH group of salicylic acid that reacts with acetic anhydride to form an ester-like product. The carboxylic acid group of salicylic acid remains unchanged. Acetic anhydride is used because it is cheap and forms a by-product, acetic acid. Acetic acid is non corrosive and can be recovered to produce more acetic anhydride. Procedure 2. 4g of salicylic acid was weighed and poured into a 100ml conical flask. The actual weight was then recorded. In the fume hood, 6ml of acetic anhydride was added to the salicylic acid in the flask. To this mixture, 3 to 4 drops of sulphuric acid was added, swirled to mix and then heated in a water bath for 10-15 minutes to complete the reaction. The mixture was removed from the water bath while it was still hot and then 1ml of distilled water was added from a dropper carefully to decompose the excess acetic anhydride. An additional 40ml of cold water was added and stirred with a stirring rod to induce crystallisation. The crude product was collected by suction filtration and washed with a little cold water. The crude product is relatively impure; hence it was needed to be purified by recrystallisation. A solvent suitable for this recrystallization process would be a mixture of ethanol and water. The crude product was dissolved in approximately 5ml of ethanol in a 100ml conical flask and heated on a hot plate. To the solution, 30ml of hot distilled water was added in. The solution was then warmed till all solid has dissolved. The solution was allowed to cool. A clean, dry watch glass together with a filter paper was weighed and the weight was recorded. The recrystallised product was obtained by suction filtration using the weighed filter paper. The crystals and filter paper was transferred onto the weighed watch glass and dried in to the oven (100Ã °C) for 15 to 20 minutes. The crystals, filter paper and watch glass are then placed in desiccators for 5 to 10 minutes. The dried crystals, together with the filter paper and watch glass were weighed. The weight was recorded and the weight of dried, recrystallised aspirin was calculated. The expected yield of aspirin was calculated from the amount of salicylic acid used. The percentage yield of dried, recrystallised aspirin was also calculated. The melting point of aspirin was determined. Results Mass of salicylic acid Mass of filter paper and watch glass Mass of dried, recrystallised aspirin, filter paper and watch glass Mass of dried, recrystallised aspirinMass of dried, recrystallized aspirin, filter paper and watch glass Mass of filter paper and watch glass Percent yield Number of moles of salicylic acid used (mol wt of salicylic acid = 138) Expected number of moles of aspirin Expected mass of aspirin Percent yield Melting point Temperature Range134. 7 Ã¢â¬â 136. 8 Appearance The crystals are white and shiny, shaped needle-like. The crystals resemble glass wool. Discussion The results and calculations shows how much acetylsalicylic acid was synthesized compared to how much salicylic acid was used. Since there is a 1:1 ratio between the two, then the amount of salicylic acid used should be equal to the amount of acetylsalicylic acid recovered at the end of the experiment. As the result shows, this is not the case, for 1. 83g of acetylsalicylic acid was harvested when 2. 40g of salicylic acid was used. This could have some effect on the purity; for the melting point of the harvested acetylsalicylic acid which is 134. 7 Ã¢â¬â 136. 8 was not very close to the theoretical melting point. The percentage yield is only 56. 1%. Since the final product was determined not to be very pure, it is highly likely that less than 1. 83g of the product was acetylsalicylic acid. Further analysis of the product will have to be done to determine exactly how pure the product actually was. There were several problems that could have contributed to the low purity or mediocre percent yield. When dissolving the initial amount of salicylic acid in the solution of acetic anhydride and concentrated sulphuric acid, it did not completely dissolve into the solution, even when it was heated. There could also be loss of product on the filter paper. Some crystals would be stuck onto the filter paper and this might have affected the mass of the crystals. The sample may not have been completely dried out before weighing. This could have a slight impact on the results of the overall yield of aspirin because it was possible that not all of the salicylic acid was synthesized. To determine if this affected the synthesis of aspirin at all, the experiment should have been ran a second time to see if the same thing occurred. Conclusion The experiment did not go completely as expected. The reaction yielded only 56. 1% of its expected product. The purity of the aspirin was not very high, because there might be impurities in the acid used. Reference 1. Henry, Dr. Geneive. 2004. Susquehanna University. Synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin). 2. The history of Aspirin, accessed 25th May 2009, 3. History of Aspirin, viewed on 13th Dec 2010, ; http://inventors. about. com/library/inventors/blaspirin. htm; 4. Theory, accessed 15th Dec 2010, 5. Dr. Carman. 2002. University of Nevada, accessed, 15 Dec 2010, ; http://tooldoc. wncc. nevada. edu/aspirin. htm; 6. Synthesis of Aspirin, accessed 13th Dec 2010, 7. Aspirin, accessed 14th Dec 2010,
Monday, March 2, 2020
Primes and Princes Primes and Princes Primes and Princes By Mark Nichol This post lists and defines words deriving from the adjective primus, meaning Ã¢â¬Å"firstÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"finest.Ã¢â¬ premier: first, or earliest; as a noun, a synonym for Ã¢â¬Å"prime ministerÃ¢â¬ premier danseur/premiÃ ¨re danseuse: the first male and female dancer, respectively, in a ballet company premiere: most commonly, a first performance or broadcast of a performing-arts production or the first day of an exhibition (and, rarely, the leading actress in a production); as a verb, pertains to appearing for the first time in a starring role, or the first performance of a performing-arts production prim: neat and trim, or prudish or stiffly formal (and occasionally a verb pertaining to dressing modestly or making a demure expression); prim is also sometimes an abbreviation for primary or primitive prima donna: the first female singer in an opera or a concert; by extension, based on the stereotypical arrogance of such performers, a person who is difficult to work with prima facie: apparent or self-evident (or, in legal usage, legally sufficient to establish a case or a fact); on first appearance primacy: the state of being first, or the office of a high-ranking priest called a primate primal: elemental, natural, or original; less often, first in importance primary: first in order of development or time, or importance or value, or basic, direct, or firsthand; also, relating to something initial or preparatory, or pertaining to a first division, or relating to a preliminary election, as well as derived from ores or not derivable from other phenomena (such as colors); as a noun, something first, dominant, or most proximate primate: any of various species, including humans, apes, monkeys, and related animals; also, the highest-ranking priest in a given area primatologist: one who studies primates primavera: served with fresh vegetables (said of a dish, as in Ã¢â¬Å"pasta primaveraÃ¢â¬ ) prime: as a noun, the first hour of the day, the best or most active period or stage, the earliest stage, the best or leading individual or part, the first part of the day, a symbol resembling an apostrophe used for various designations (including units of length, angular measure, or time), or a truncation of Ã¢â¬Å"prime numberÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"prime rateÃ¢â¬ ; as an adjective, best or first, or original (also various mathematical senses); as a verb, apply, load, prepare, stimulate, or supply primer: a short introductory piece of writing, such as an informative article or a reading-instruction book; also, a device used to ignite explosives, a molecule necessary for formation of another molecule, or an initial coating, such as for painting a surface primeval: ancient, basic, or first created, formed, or existing primigravida: one that or who is pregnant for the first time primipara: one that has borne a first offspring or only one offspring primiparous: having a first or only one offspring primitive: original, or earliest or least evolved or in an early stage of development, elemental or natural, or naive or self-taught primo: the first or leading part in an ensemble; as an adverb, in the first place; as an adjective, slang synonym for excellent primogenitor: ancestor or forefather primogeniture: exclusive right of the eldest son to inherit all, or being the firstborn primordial: see primeval primp: dress up (perhaps an extension of prim) primrose: any of various species of plants and their flowers primus: in the Scottish Episcopal Church, the leading bishop; also, the first word of the Latin phrase primus inter pares, meaning Ã¢â¬Å"first among equalsÃ¢â¬ prince: a male member of a ruling family (especially a son of the ruler), a king or other male ruler, a nobleman, or, by extension, one of high rank or standing princeling: a minor prince princess: a female member of a ruling family (especially a daughter of the ruler), a queen or other female ruler, a noblewoman, or, by extension, one of high rank or standing principal: as a noun, a leading person, such as the chief administrator of a school, or something that is most important, or the original amount of money owed; as an adjectival, most important principality: the territory of a prince, or the authority, office, or state of a prince; in plural form, one of various hierarchical categories of angels principle: an assumption, law, or principle considered fundamental, or an explanatory fact or law; a code or rule of conduct, the quality of devotion to principles, or a quality in general; an original source; or an ingredient with a characteristic quality Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:100 Words for Facial Expressions50 Latin Phrases You Should KnowHow to Style Legislative Terms
Friday, February 14, 2020
Discussion - Essay Example polyandry, children born are said to descendants of the eldest brother alone while in non-fraternal polyandry fatherhood is determined through a ceremony. In other cases, the children are said to have descended from all the husbands. I find this type of marriage unusual and unethical. This form of marriage does not have ways through which the fatherhood of the children can be determined. I find it hard that men can share a common wife without constantly fighting. It is practiced by the Tibetan, Marquesan, Toda and Sherpa societies. This form of marriage is believed to create family unity which is important if the family is seeking or wants to maintain its social economic status since all property and land is owned by the family as a whole. The brothers are believed to live harmoniously if they share a common wife. In a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, there is a sense of security due to the fact that all the husbands will struggle to fend for the
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Death of a journalist - Essay Example During the actual fighting phase of the 1991 Gulf War for the liberation of Kuwait no journalists were killed, but in the ensuing days four freelance journalists were killed. In 2002 during the action in Afghanistan eight journalists were killed within a short span of two-weeks, and at one point in this war the media related casualties were higher than the actual military casualties. This trend of high journalist causalities was carried into the war in Iraq, where in the four weeks of fighting fifteen journalists lost their lives. Some may have died through accidents, but the vast majority of them were killed during combat action. (1)1 Commenting on these deaths of journalists, the Chief Executive of the World Association of Newspapers (WAN), is reported to have said in October this year, Ã¢â¬Å"Journalism today is more dangerous than ever. More than 500 journalists have been killed in the past decade, often for simply doing their jobsÃ¢â¬ . The recent years have seen the up trend in journalists being killed while doing their jobs continuing. In 2004 seventy-two journalists lost their lives, while in the field. Till the first week of October 2006, seventy-five journalists have been killed, making it the worst year in this regard for journalists, and confirming the rising trend of journalists killed in their line of duty. (2) The Iraq War, and the subsequent situation there has proved to be the killing fields of many a journalist. The situation of the journalists in Iraq is reflective of the nature of the grave risks that they face in their line of duty. Working in a war zone has always been fraught with dangers that emanate from the battles that occur there. In addition to that journalists in Iraq also face the danger of being hunted down and killed, just because they may be suspected of cooperating with one of the combatant forces, or because of their religious, or political affiliations. This
Friday, January 24, 2020
Whitman's "O Captain! My Captain!" And Dickinson's "Hope is a Thing with Feathers" America experienced profound changes during the mid 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s. New technologies and ideas helped the nation grow, while the Civil War ripped the nation apart. During this tumultuous period, two great American writers captured their ideas in poetry. Their poems give us insight into the time period, as well as universal insight about life. Although polar opposites in personality, Emily Dickinson and Walt Whitman created similar poetry. DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Hope is a Thing with FeathersÃ¢â¬ and WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"O Captain! My Captain!Ã¢â¬ share many qualities. "Hope is a Thing with FeathersÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"O Captain! My Captain!Ã¢â¬ contain a similar scansion. Both have a predominantly iambic meter. The unaccented beat followed by the accented beat creates a rising meter. Each poem also contains notable exceptions to the iambic meter. In "Hope is a Thing with Feathers,Ã¢â¬ the first line Ã¢â¬ËHope is the thingÃ¢â¬â¢ contains a trochee followed by an iamb. Ã¢â¬Å"O Captain! My Captain!Ã¢â¬ contains even more exceptions to the iambic meter. Line 5, Ã¢â¬ËBut O heart! heart! heart!Ã¢â¬â¢ consists of an imperfect root followed by two spondees, or feet with two equally accented syllables. Both Line 6 Ã¢â¬ËO the bleeding drops of redÃ¢â¬â¢ and line 8 Ã¢â¬ËFallen cold and deadÃ¢â¬â¢ have trochaic meters with an imperfect root at the end. The remainder of the poem has an iambic meter until the last two lines: Ã¢â¬ËWalk the deck my Captain lies, /Fallen cold and dead.Ã¢â¬â¢ The iambic meter... Whitman's O Captain! My Captain! And Dickinson's Hope is a Thing with F Whitman's "O Captain! My Captain!" And Dickinson's "Hope is a Thing with Feathers" America experienced profound changes during the mid 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s. New technologies and ideas helped the nation grow, while the Civil War ripped the nation apart. During this tumultuous period, two great American writers captured their ideas in poetry. Their poems give us insight into the time period, as well as universal insight about life. Although polar opposites in personality, Emily Dickinson and Walt Whitman created similar poetry. DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Hope is a Thing with FeathersÃ¢â¬ and WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"O Captain! My Captain!Ã¢â¬ share many qualities. "Hope is a Thing with FeathersÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"O Captain! My Captain!Ã¢â¬ contain a similar scansion. Both have a predominantly iambic meter. The unaccented beat followed by the accented beat creates a rising meter. Each poem also contains notable exceptions to the iambic meter. In "Hope is a Thing with Feathers,Ã¢â¬ the first line Ã¢â¬ËHope is the thingÃ¢â¬â¢ contains a trochee followed by an iamb. Ã¢â¬Å"O Captain! My Captain!Ã¢â¬ contains even more exceptions to the iambic meter. Line 5, Ã¢â¬ËBut O heart! heart! heart!Ã¢â¬â¢ consists of an imperfect root followed by two spondees, or feet with two equally accented syllables. Both Line 6 Ã¢â¬ËO the bleeding drops of redÃ¢â¬â¢ and line 8 Ã¢â¬ËFallen cold and deadÃ¢â¬â¢ have trochaic meters with an imperfect root at the end. The remainder of the poem has an iambic meter until the last two lines: Ã¢â¬ËWalk the deck my Captain lies, /Fallen cold and dead.Ã¢â¬â¢ The iambic meter...
Thursday, January 16, 2020
In the 1900s, the world was suddenly enveloped by vagueness and uncertainty on what the future will bring. Prior to this period, the ambience was definite and secure. In relation to the art world, many artists were trying to outgrow the traditional styles that flourished all over the world. They wanted to create something different based from the conventional aesthetics popularized by the Renaissance. These artisans were considered as the founders of Modernism because they were trying to search for ways on how to display their new found outlook to ambiguity. This scenario laid the grounds for the founding of Cubism. This avant-garde art style movement began when a French painter called Paul Cezanne began to change his Impressionist style. Cezanne shifted from painting landscapes with pastel colors and soft brushstrokes to concentrating on portraying his own interpretation of the Ã¢â¬Å"shapes and formsÃ¢â¬ and he stayed away from rendering a realistic pictorial output. More so, he put more importance on the painting as a whole rather than focusing on the subject or the theme. Then, another artist came into the picture named Henri Matisse who also paved the way for the development of Cubism. Together with Louis Vauxcelles, an art critic and French journalist who Ã¢â¬Å"coined the term Ã¢â¬Ëles fauvesÃ¢â¬â¢ (the wild animals) for the artists of Fauvism,Ã¢â¬ Matisse discovered an unusual painting by George Braque at the Ã¢â¬Å"Salon dÃ¢â¬â¢ Automne. Ã¢â¬ He said that the artwork incorporated Ã¢â¬Å"little cubes. Ã¢â¬ BraqueÃ¢â¬â¢s painting showcased the landscape of the South of France with a surprising twist of including Ã¢â¬Å"two ascending lines meeting at the top and between several cubes. Ã¢â¬ This work of art provided artists who were looking for change with a new direction. Braque was the very first artist to create a cubist painting. Since then, despite the negative criticisms, cubism became an established style and art movement. The term Ã¢â¬Å"cubismÃ¢â¬ was developed by Vauxcelles when he was writing a report about the Ã¢â¬Å"Salon des Independants in 1909. Ã¢â¬ Through the ingenuity and innovation of Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, cubism has gained a big following in France and rest of the world. According to Picasso, Cubism has tangible goals. We see it only as a means of expressing what we perceive with the eye and the spirit, while utilizing the possibilities that lie within the natural properties of drawing and color, That became a source of unexpected joy for us, a front to discoveries. (Gantefuhrer-Trier, Gantefuhrer and Grosenick 2004, 6) It is evident that Cubism is the brainchild of Picasso and Braque. They were responsible for the proliferation of a modern, radical and powerful art style that significantly influenced the 20th century. The main focus of this style and movement is the Ã¢â¬Å"complete denial of Classical conception of beauty. Ã¢â¬ The untrained eye evaluated the by-products of the cubists as perplexing but for the avant-garde, they perceived cubism as the way to the future. In cubism, many traditional elements such as proportions, lines, perspective and forms are distorted. As a result, the visual representation looked like Ã¢â¬Å"a field of broken glass. Ã¢â¬ Because of this, cubism became known for its Ã¢â¬Å"geometrically analytical approach to form and color, and shattering of object in focus into geometrical sharp-edged angular pieces. Ã¢â¬ To form these unusual shapes, a systematic deconstruction was employed to create an illusion of three- dimensionality. Many cubists doubted the integrity of Ã¢â¬Å"wholeÃ¢â¬ images because for them these were the synthetic and conventional outputs of the past artisans. They believed that Ã¢â¬Å"perspective space is an illusory, rational invention, or a sign system inherited from works of art since the Renaissance. Moreover, cubism has two major branches namely: Analytical cubism and Synthetic cubism. The former is defined as the intellectual distortion of a subject matter producing hard to interpret and ambiguous materials. Meanwhile, the latter is more Ã¢â¬Å"experimental nature of a collageÃ¢â¬ and highly decorative. It is easier to comprehend than analytic cubism because the images and forms are not that distorted and abstract. Since its inception, Cubism became a worldwide phenomenon in the field of art. It continues to challenge artists even in the contemporary period to advance the art style and the movement to better reflect culture and society. Pioneers of Cubism The growth of cubism in the 20th century is accredited to Pablo Picasso and George Braque. Both worked hand in hand in exploring and at the same time experimenting with a technique aimed at flattening space. They utilized bold colors, raw shapes and flattened space to display their non-conformist approach towards art. It was the focus on conveying emotions rather than the Ã¢â¬Å"intellectual experiment with structureÃ¢â¬ that set cubism from other avant-garde movements such as Fauvism. Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso was a native of Spain. At an early age, he was already producing remarkable works of art. In the early 1900s, Picasso moved to Paris where he developed an artistic phase called the Blue period. This was the time when he used various Ã¢â¬Å"shades of blueÃ¢â¬ in portraying the darker side of particular place. By the time he met Fernande Oliver, PicassoÃ¢â¬â¢s gloomy works transformed into bright shades of red that became known as his Rose period. The circus theme seemed to be the favorite subject of Picasso during this period. By 1906, he went to Spain that marked another modification in his art style. During his stay there, he was greatly influenced by Ã¢â¬Å"African, Green and Iberian art. Ã¢â¬ He incorporated geometrical forms that made his paintings very forward-looking. Then, Picasso met another intriguing artist named George Braque. In 1908 to 1911, they developed a unique style of painting landscape wherein they included cube shapes or forms in the picture. This became known as analytic cubism. This style was formed by Ã¢â¬Å"by breaking down and analyzing a objectÃ¢â¬ and utilizing a monochromatic earthy brown color scheme. By 1912, Picasso started to use other elements in his artworks that resulted to the creation of collages which is also known as synthetic cubism. This style is more for decorative purposes. In the late 1920s, Picasso moved to Rome, Italy where he got married. In this period, he painted Ã¢â¬Å"neoclassical pictures of women and pictures inspired by Greek mythology. Ã¢â¬ By the time WWI broke out, Picasso created Guernica, to demonstrate his opposition over the bombing of Ã¢â¬Å"Basque town of Guernica on April 26, 1937 during the Spanish Civil War. Ã¢â¬ The painting was filled with symbolisms that represented the wickedness attached with the bombing. By the time of the end of WWII until PicassoÃ¢â¬â¢s death in 1973, his paintings veered towards more somber theme dealing about death. Some of PicassoÃ¢â¬â¢s famous artworks include Woman with a Crow (1903), Les Demoiselles dÃ¢â¬â¢Avignon (1907), Geometric Composition: The Guitar (1913) and many others. George Braque On the other hand, George Braque also lived a full life personally and professionally in the realm of art. He studied painting at the Ã¢â¬Å"local art school in Le Havre,Ã¢â¬ France. This was followed by a more formal training at the Ã¢â¬Å"Academie Humbert and at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in the studio of Leon Bonnat. Ã¢â¬ Braque started out with impressionism wherein he was influenced by Matisse and Derain. By 1906, he got immersed with Fauvism and started to use light and bright colors combined with undulating patterns. But he stood out from the rest of the fauvists when he employed Ã¢â¬Å"architectonic solidity of composition and an emphasis on strongly defined volumes rather than color and brushwork. Ã¢â¬ The year 1907 became a crucial time for Braque and cubism. This was the time when Braque was once again inspired by Paul Cezanne and this was also the time when he met Pablo Picasso. Because of them, BraqueÃ¢â¬â¢s outputs developed into something more radical. After only three years, the tandem of Braque and Picasso produce a new form art style called the analytic cubism which is described as the Ã¢â¬Å"nonillusionistic and nonimitative method of depicting the visual world. Ã¢â¬ The partnership of these two artists was mutual and their connection was so strong that their artworks cannot be distinguished from one another. The Violin and Pitcher (1910) is a very suitable example of an analytic cubism by Braque. Most of his paintings during this period were fragmented resulting to a Ã¢â¬Å"compact pictorial structure. Ã¢â¬ In 1914, Braque ventured into another phase of cubism which was called synthetic cubism wherein the artistic treatment included the use of Ã¢â¬Å"brightly dotted decorative passages. Ã¢â¬ Then, he moved to Normandy, France in the 1930s which have influenced Braque to shift his themes to seascapes. His painting style employed the use of Ã¢â¬Å"ornamentation and patterned surfaces. Ã¢â¬ From the 1930s to the 1950s, Braque grew interests on birds, melancholic themes, brilliant fauvist colors that were all seen in his Ã¢â¬Å"sculptures, graphics, book illustration, and decorative art. Ã¢â¬ Famous Cubist Artworks In the early 20th century, a new wave of artists have emerged that embraced a new progressive art style that had made a significant influence in the art world and the rest of the society and this was Cubism. This innovative movement aided in the development of contemporary art. More so, cubism led to the activation of many artistsÃ¢â¬â¢ creative geniuses and induction of their bravery to go against the flow. Because of this, numerous masterpieces have emerged that embodied the unique principles and avant-garde style of cubism. Les Demoiselles dÃ¢â¬â¢Avignon by Pablo Picasso (1907) This painting showed PicassoÃ¢â¬â¢s portrayal of sexuality and his defiance over the traditional rules on visual elements and principles of design. The images integrated illustrated five naked female Ã¢â¬Å"prostitutes in a brothel. Ã¢â¬ In terms of form, human bodies were deformed with distorted body proportions. Also, out of the five figures, three were wearing ancient African masks that made the painting more interesting. More so, the Ã¢â¬Å"bold, brash diagonal lines and angular planes added a sense of violence to the composition. Ã¢â¬ The colors used were a mix of bold hues of reds and blues that were combined with the subtle pink and flesh tones. Through this, each figure was able to stand out from one another. Another intriguing factor of the painting is the Ã¢â¬Å"two central figuresÃ¢â¬ that appeared to be looking directly at the viewers. This was probably intentional on the part of Picasso to grab the attention of the viewers. The Les Demoiselles dÃ¢â¬â¢Avignon is one of the first models for analytic cubism that successfully demonstrated that three dimensionality can be achieved even without the employment of perspective. Violin and Pitcher by Georges Braque (1909-1910) This still life painting is another example of analytic cubism. Based on the title, the main focus of this artwork is the violin and the pitcher. Many believed that Braque developed a fascination with musical instruments even if he did not know how to play. For him, painting these instruments was his way of showing his departure with naturalism. The treatment on the primary figures was distorted in order to illustrate disintegration. The violin was twisted at the bottom to make the other parts more visible. On top of the violin is the pitcher that was also drawn in fragments to create an illusion of depth. The contrast of the shades of red and grey added more dramatic effect to the series of geometric shapes strewn all over the canvas. There is also a nail on top of the painting but it serves no real purpose unlike in BraqueÃ¢â¬â¢s earlier painting, Violin and Palette. Underneath the nail is a Ã¢â¬Å"piece of paperÃ¢â¬ wherein the top right corner was folded that provided a flattening effect on the plane. This also projected a shadow that created an illusion of light Ã¢â¬Å"being beamed down from the top right corner. Ã¢â¬ Glass of Beer and Playing Cards by Juan Gris (1913) Juan Gris was part of the founding of Cubism together with Braque and Picasso. He pushed for the advancement as well as for the growth of this art movement. In his painting of the Glass of Beer and Playing Cards, it is ruled over by vertical lines that divide the canvas into several segments. A coherently silhouetted beer mug might be established by shifting the vertical band that constitutes the right side of the mug upward so that the white outline becomes contiguous with the outline of the fully modeled form of the mug to its left. But this realignment would in turn disalign the continuity between the blue curvature on the orange wallpaper and the edge of the sand to the right, both forms constituting a view from above of the beerÃ¢â¬â¢s foam. Changes or transformations in the appearance of an object seem to occur in a number of directions: they follow the alternating rhythm of vertical bands but also the contrapuntal system of horizontal bands. Occasionally there is also a sense of transformations occurring in depth, as if Gris had peeled away the surface of certain vertical bands to reveal an alternate mode of representation or point of view beneath. Still Life with Chair Cane by Pablo Picasso (1912) This is first painting of Picasso to represent synthetic cubism. It was one of the first illustrations of a collage painting. The elements present in the artwork are woven chair cane, various geometric drawings, newspapers, painted letters and wine labels which were all encapsulated by a rope around the oval canvas. In contrast with analytic cubism, this painting is less on deconstruction but more on juxtaposing different elements for decorative purposes. Since there is only a minimal presence of fragmentations, depth is nonexistent making the painting more flat. Art in the 1900s During the 1900s, several other art movements have emerged aside from Cubism. Some of these movements were the Abstraction, Fauvism, Futurism, Dadaism and Surrealism. The only common factor that binds these art movements is their ability to reject tradition and their flair for the modern aesthetics. In abstraction, the artists choose not to depict reality. The images are disfigured, the details are left out and the conventional perspective is altered. Meanwhile, Fauvism is known for its use of colors in portraying emotions. Fauvists created their masterpieces by imperfectly treating colors in an arbitrary style. On the other hand, Futurism is characterized by the abandonment of the Ã¢â¬Å"static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality and innovation in culture and society. Ã¢â¬ This style celebrates the power and vivacity of machines. Moreover, Dadaism is another movement that garnered positive as well as negative feedbacks from art aficionados. This style is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"nihilistic, anti-aesthetic and a reaction to the rationalization, rules and conventions of mainstream art. Ã¢â¬ For Dada artists, their artworks are intended to be anti-art. The last movement is Surrealism which existed through the art style of Dadaism. Surrealist art was greatly influenced by the Ã¢â¬Å"theories of Dr. Sigmund Freud and the unconsciousÃ¢â¬ which are represented in a dream or fantasy-like manner in paintings. Though cubism had a lot of competition, it still managed to continue to influence 1920s and even way beyond to the contemporary period. Today, many modern artists are using cubism in sculptures and architecture. Cubism had become more bold and experimental. It seemed like the artists have eliminated all boundaries for the sake of the enrichment of their creativity. Like in the 1900s, many modern artists are still faced with several challenges on how to make their artworks more pleasing to the public eye but at the same time they still want to render a significant importance to their own point of view in order not to compromise their artistic integrity for public support. The House of the Black Madonna in Czech Republic and Cal Poly Pomona University library in California symbolized that the spirit and philosophies of Cubism during its initial phase are still as intense and provocative as it is today. Conclusion In conclusion, Cubism has created a revolution in the world of art. It defied the conventions and traditional practices that have dominated in the 1900s. For many artists, it was not easy to challenge the existing status quo. But because of their yearning for change and their craving for stimulation, they were able to withstand the scrutiny and rejection made by society. Through the resilience and the drive of the cubist style for progress, it was able to endure the test of time that it continues to persist in the 21st century. Moreover, this art style and movement is an evident symbol of how human beings can perceive the world in a totally different way. More so, cubism has showcased the value of intellectual freedom and distinctive aesthetic, in which significantly contributed to the development of the visual art. Overall, cubism is a form of art that will keep on evolving for the expression and celebration of humanÃ¢â¬â¢s vision, passion and imagination. BIBLIOGRAPHY Ã¢â¬Å"Art timeline. Ã¢â¬ 2007. A Lifetime of Color. http://www. alifetimeofcolor. com/study/timeline. html (accessed April 24, 2009). Ã¢â¬Å"Cubism. Ã¢â¬ 2007. Huntfor. com. http://www. huntfor. com/arthistory/C20th/cubism. htm (accessed April 23, 2009) Drinkwater, Lee. Ã¢â¬Å"Georges Braque Violin and Pitcher. Ã¢â¬ 2009. Lycos. co. uk. http://members. lycos. co. uk/cubist_movement/violin. htm (accessed April 24, 2009). Gantefuhrer-Trier, Anne, Gantefuhrer, Trie and Grosenick, Uta. Cubism. Germany: Taschen, 2004. Ã¢â¬Å"Georges Braque. Ã¢â¬ 1999. Discoverfrance. net. http://www. discoverfrance. net/France/Art/Braque/Braque. shtml (accessed April 23, 2009). Grisham, Kathleen. Ã¢â¬Å"Analytical Cubism. Ã¢â¬ n. d. West Valley College. http://instruct. westvalley. edu/grisham/1d_analycub. html (accessed April 23, 2009).
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
The above graph shows the how education is a major factor in the variation of changes of the United States during this time frame. For the birth year, it would be the birth year of the parents of the students going to college. The percent is the percentage of students that completed college. As you can easily tell that the elite class keeps rising, while the low class barely moves. The developed country of the United States has increased the college costs for students in recent years. Higher costs only benefit the wealthy and lower-income students lose in this situation. Lower-income households end up borrowing too much. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t affect the elite; in fact, they have the largest spike opposed to the other classes. Although college completion rates have increased, the cost of borrowing has also increased for lower class households. In a developing country, since there is more poverty and less parents that went to college, it led to most adults not having any schooling. 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